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"IEEE Sensors Alert" is a pilot-project of IEEE Sensors Council as one of its new initiatives. It is a monthly digest to publish teasers and condensed versions of our journal papers in a layman’s language.

Articles Posted in the Month (Apr 2022)

Electronic Waste Reduction through Devices and Printed Circuit Boards designed for Circularity

Moupali Chakraborty; Jeff Kettle; Ravinder Dahiya
Published in: IEEE Journal on Flexible Electronics (Volume: 1, Issue: 1, Jan. 2022)
The extensive use of electronic goods has accelerated the threat of the rise in electronics waste (e-Waste). Its unregulated disposal causes environmental and health issues. Despite international policies and associated legalization, the exponential growth in production of waste Printed Circuit boards (WPCBs), use of poor raw material and energy-hungry manufacturing processes have spiked this problem as unsustainable. The use of emerging eco-friendly materials, resource-efficient manufacturing processes, and new technologies are needed to improve the industry's sustainability.
4 min
April 11, 2022

Design, Development and Characterization of Textile Stitch-Based Piezoresistive Sensors for Wearable Monitoring

Nauman Ali Choudhry, Abher Rasheed, Sheraz Ahmad, Lyndon Arnold, and Lijing Wang
Published in: IEEE Sensors Journal (Volume: 20, Issue: 18, Sept.15, 2020)
Electronic textiles (E-textiles) have recently emerged as a promising technology and will soon transform the wearable industry. Due to its flexibility and ease of embedding in garments, wearable sensing has become a favourite choice for continuous health monitoring of athletes and medical patients. Advancements in textile-based sensors significantly impact the quality of life and will play an important role in the field of Internet of Things (IoT).
5 min
April 8, 2022

Miniaturized System for Tumor Cell Detection and Differentiation

Rajapaksha W. R. L. Gajasinghe, Basile Bougenot, Michelle A. Jones, Tan A. Ince, Onur Tigli
Published in: IEEE Sensors Journal (Volume: 21, Issue: 18, Sept. 2021)
Though still not widespread in clinical applications, the detection of circulating tumor cells (CTC) attracts researchers' interest as a technique to diagnose and monitor cancer patients. They have been working on developing a miniaturized, portable, low cost, mass-producible device with the potential for automated and non-invasive diagnostics of CTCs in blood samples at point-of-care locations.
4 min
April 1, 2022

Portable Sensing Devices for Detection of COVID-19: A Review

Deniz Sadighbayan, Ebrahim Ghafar-Zadeh
Published in: IEEE Sensors Journal (Volume: 21, Issue: 9, May 2021)
Portable biosensing systems are crucial in deterrence, timely detection, and intensive care of pandemic-causing diseases like the disastrous COVID-19. The Global emergency led researchers to accelerate the development of portable diagnostic devices for recognizing SARS-CoV-2 and advancing the existing biosensor technology such as electrochemical, optical, and electrical for detecting other viruses and low viral loads.
5 min
April 1, 2022

Articles Posted in the Month (Mar 2022)

A PCA-based method to select the number and the body location of piezoresistive sensors in a wearable system for respiratory monitoring

Luigi Raiano, Joshua Di Tocco, Carlo Massaroni, Giovanni Di Pino, Emiliano Schena, Domenico Formica
Published in: IEEE Sensors Journal (Volume: 21, Issue: 5, March 2021)
The optimal number and body location of piezoresistive sensors to design wearables for monitoring respiratory rate are still debated. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based method developed to address this challenge considered different references (i.e., at rest and during walking/running). Trials demonstrated that real-time situations strongly influence the number of sensors and their location to optimize wearable performances.
4 min
March 1, 2022

A Wearable, Multimodal Sensing System to Monitor Knee Joint Health

Caitlin N. Teague, J. Alex Heller, Brandi N. Nevius, Andrew M. Carek , Samer Mabrouk , Florencia Garcia-Vicente, Omer T. Inan , Mozziyar Etemadi
Published in: IEEE Sensors Journal ( Volume: 20, Issue: 18, September 2020)
Knee injuries and other minor or chronic knee conditions are prevalent. Monitoring rehabilitation or medication progress in knee treatment is time-consuming, expensive, and requires regular imaging, follow-ups, and several tests. However, knee health can be monitored and “joint health score” calculated remotely with wearable sensors that pick up sound, swelling, temperature and motion. Packaging these sensors into a wearable brace is vital for monitoring the knee.
5 min
March 1, 2022

Articles Posted in the Month (Feb 2022)

Janus: A Combined Radar and Vibration Sensor for Beehive Monitoring

Herbert M. Aumann; Margery K. Aumann; Nuri W. Emanetoglu
Published in: IEEE Sensors Letters (Volume: 5, Issue: 3, March 2021)
The two-faced sensor system, JANUS, is designed to help beekeepers track bee activities like ‘Swarming’ and ‘Robbing’. The outward-looking Doppler radar monitors the bee flights while the inward-looking piezoelectric transducer senses the vibrations made by bees inside the hive. Researchers were able to use the level, duration and correlation between the two sensor signals to provide sufficient indication about different types of bee activity.
4 min
February 1, 2022

Graphene Sensors

Ernie W. Hill, Aravind Vijayaragahvan, Kostya Novoselov
Published in: IEEE Sensors Journal (Volume: 11, Issue: 12, December 2011)
Graphene is often called a ‘miracle material’ due to its exceptional mechanical, electrical and chemical properties. It is a highly conductive, thinnest yet strongest, transparent and non-porous layer of pure carbon atoms in a honeycomb structure. Graphene has immense potential for fabricating various types of flexible sensors like mechanical, magnetic, electrochemical, biosensors, optical sensors etc.
5 min
February 1, 2022

Articles Posted in the Month (Jan 2022)

Environmental Monitoring Systems: A Review

Anuj Kumar, Hiesik Kim, and Gerhard P. Hancke
Published in: IEEE Sensors Journal (Volume: 13, Issue: 4, April 2013)
Humans are paying a heavy price for economic growth and overall development, whether infrastructure or industrial growth. The pollution and greenhouse gas emissions have led to environmental concerns and climate change, affecting health and life’s quality. However, a rise in environmental awareness created a demand for Environment monitoring systems (EMS) to detect the source and quantify the pollution level by providing a real-time data monitoring and alarm system.
4 min
January 1, 2022

Lock-in Time-of-Flight (ToF) Cameras: A Survey

Sergi Foix, Guillem Alenyà, and Carme Torras
Published in: IEEE Sensors Journal (Volume: 11, No: 9, September 2011)
Time of Flight (ToF) camera sensor has emerged as a promising technology. Depth intensity pixel associated higher frame rate images, lightweight, compact design, and reduced power consumption and errors in the output have built great potential for ToF imaging in various domains. Despite its limitations like low resolutions and high noise, the ToF cameras are extensively used in computer graphics, machine vision, and robotics.
5 min
January 1, 2022

Articles Posted in the Month (Dec 2021)

Overview of Automotive Sensors

William J. Fleming
Published in: IEEE Sensors Journal (Volume: 1, No: 4, December 2001)
From mechanical to automatic to self-driven cars, the emerging sensors are revolutionizing the automobile industry. Sensors have emerged as essential components of the automotive electronic control system. The three major areas of automotive systems application–powertrain, chassis, and body are all controlled by arrays of sensors. Advancing automotive sensor technologies have a significant impact on the present with immense scope for the future development of automotive systems.
6 min
December 1, 2021

Inertial Sensor Technology Trends

Neil Barbour and George Schmidt
Published in: IEEE Sensors Journal (Volume: 1, Issue: 4, December 2001)
The human desire for accuracy in exploration and guided navigation has brought inventive changes in inertial sensors technology. Integrating inertial sensors with external aids like Doppler, star tracker, or Global Positioning Systems (GPS) improves their accuracy, enhances reliability, and helps overcome inertial drift. Its vast applications in autonomous vehicles, military and space technology, etc., demand the need for extremely low-cost, small size, efficient and batch-producible sensors.
4 min
December 1, 2021

Articles Posted in the Month (Nov 2021)

A Wireless, Passive Carbon Nanotube-Based Gas Sensor

Keat Ghee Ong, Kefeng Zeng, and Craig A. Grimes
Published in: IEEE Sensors Journal (Volume: 2, Issue: 2, April 2002)
Multiwall carbon nanotube-silicon dioxide (MWNT-SiO2) coated composite surface has been developed as a linear, responsive, sensitive gas sensors for O2, CO2 and NH3 gases. The presence of gas concentration is measured by measuring corresponding changes in permittivity and conductivity of MWNT which consequently changes its resonant frequency. The advent of MWNT-SiO2 offers an enormous potential to build low cost, highly sensitive, linear, passive, portable, low power wireless gas sensors.
5 min
November 1, 2021

Multi-Sensor Chip for Monitoring Key Parameters in Bioprocesses

Nurul IzniRusli, Irene Pia Vincentini, Frederik Ceyssens, Michael Kraft
Published in: IEEE Sensors Journal (Volume: 21, Issue: 18, September 2021)
Wearable electronics, mobile applications, the Internet of Things (IoT) technology, and remote monitoring have revolutionized the health care system. The technological advancement in microfabrication techniques has enabled miniaturization and multi-sensing biosensors devices to monitor vital parameters in bioprocesses. Along with its multiple benefits like compact size, low cost, low power consumption, it can also monitor Cell’s density, oxygen, lactate, glucose, temperature, and pH in real-time.
4 min
November 1, 2021

Articles Posted in the Month (Oct 2021)

Experimental Environments for the Internet of Things: A Review

Luis Eduardo Lima, Bruno Yuji Lino Kimura, Valério Rosset
Published in: IEEE Sensors Journal (Volume: 19, Issue: 9, MAY 2019)
The Internet of Things (IoT) connects different objects embedded with sensors, software and state-of-the-art technologies through the internet, enabling them to communicate in real-time through the wired or wireless communication system. Its application requires validation before actual implementation to reduce the risk involved, especially in security and privacy. The development of experimental environment (testbeds) provides an efficient platform for conducting practical IoT experiments under real conditions and precise testing techniques for wireless sensor networks (WSN) and IoT applications before implementation.
5 min
October 1, 2021

Distributed Odor Source Localization

Adam T. Hayes, Alcherio Martinoli, Rodney M. Goodman
Published in: IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL (VOL. 2, NO. 3, JUNE 2002)
Humans have expertise in using animal’s evolved olfactory senses to their benefit. With the emergence of chemical sensors, efforts are made to make mobile odor-source sensing robots. However, odors cannot be sensed or measured by a single parameter such as wavelength or frequency. Studies show that a group of autonomous mobile robots using suitable algorithms performs superior to a single complex robot in odor localization tasks.
4 min
October 1, 2021

Articles Posted in the Month (Sep 2021)

Instrumented Hip Implant: A Review

Yazan Qiblawey, Muhammad E. H. Chowdhury, Farayi Musharavati, Erfan Zalnezhad, Amith Khandakar, and Mohammad Tariqul Islam
Published in: IEEE Sensors Journal (Volume: 21, Issue: 6, March 2021)
With fast growing older population, the need for knee or hip implants has grown tremendously. These implants have short lifetime due to implant wear, loosening, and misalignment. Therefore it becomes imperative to monitor the implants to avoid unexpected failure and unnoticed deterioration. Smart, instrumented implants can provide accurate monitoring of the implant, delaying the revision surgeries and its consequences.
5 min
September 1, 2021

Silicon piezoresistive stress sensors and their application in electronic packaging

J.C. Suhling, R.C. Jaeger
Published in: IEEE Sensors Journal (Volume: 1, Issue: 1, June 2001)
The integrated circuits are known for high circuit densities that raise concerns for thermal, mechanical and low-cost packaging material induced stresses. All these put together either cause the chip to fail or perform against the design. Study of such stresses is mandatory before rolling out the chips from a Fab lab. Silicon Piezoresistive Stress Sensors have shown great potential for understanding and detecting stress distributions in electronic packages. It eventually helps in calibrating the IC parameters, selecting wafer planes and packaging materials, etc.
4 min
September 1, 2021

Articles Posted in the Month (Aug 2021)

Human Activity Recognition With Smartphone and Wearable Sensors Using Deep Learning Techniques: A Review

E. Ramanujam, Thinagaran Perumal, S. Padmavathi
Published in: IEEE Sensors Journal (Volume: 21, Issue: 12, June 2021)
Human Activity Recognition (HAR) is a field that recognizes human activities from raw time-series signals acquired through embedded sensors of smartphones and wearable devices among others. Deep learning networks modeled after neural network of human brain are widely used in HAR system to retrieve and classify distinct activities. AT present they can accurately recognize simple human activities which make them very useful in Smartphone HAR systems.
6 min read
August 3, 2021

Wearable Flexible Sensors: A Review

Anindya Nag, Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay, Jürgen Kosel.
Published in: IEEE Sensors Journal (Volume: 17, Issue: 13, July 2017)
The use of sensors in the application world has drastically improved the human life. Sensors have reduced the time required to study events from hours, to a few seconds or minutes. Nowadays sensing systems are being used in gas sensing, environmental monitoring, as well as the food industry. Monitoring of physiological parameters is being done through Wearable Flexible Sensors (WFS). Tremendous scientific research is going on to develop sensors with better sustainability and sensitivity and to overcome challenges regarding handling of the generated data, comfort of the person concerned, and the power consumed by the devices. Better manufacturing techniques will help develop newer sensors encompassing all income categories in the near future.
2 min read
August 2, 2021

Articles Posted in the Month (July 2021)

Technologies for Printing Sensors and Electronics Over Large Flexible Substrates: A Review

Saleem Khan, LeandroLorenzelli, Ravinder S. Dahiya
Published in: IEEE Sensors Journal (Volume: 15, Issue: 6, June 2015)
Printed sensors and electronics have attracted greater interest as printing facilitates low cost fabrication. With the advent of increased research and demonstration of printed sensors and electronics, we are not far from enabling large area electronics on flexible substrates through cost effective printing technologies on a wide scale. The cost- effectiveness of printing technologies and employing them for flexible electronics will open up new classes of applications, and dramatically change the electronics industry landscape.
5 min read
July 3, 2021

Flexible Wireless Antenna Sensor: A Review

Haiying Huang
Published in: IEEE Sensors Journal (Volume: 13, Issue: 10, October 2013)
Research in the field of flexible sensor skins has progressed significantly in last few decades. With patch antenna technology, these sensors can be wirelessly interrogated with very simple and low-power sensor circuitries for strain sensing, crack detection, shear measurement, bio-chemical sensing etc. Since the information is encoded as frequency, frequency division multiplexing can be exploited to form a large sensor array, hence making the antenna sensor an excellent candidate for flexible sensor skin implementation.
6 min read
July 2, 2021

Articles Posted in the Month (June 2021)

Sensitive Skin

Vladimir J. Lumelsky, Michael S. Shur, and Sigurd Wagner
Published in: IEEE Sensors Journal (Volume: 1, Issue: 1, June 2001)
Sensitive skin is a large array of sensors embedded in a flexible, stretchable, and/or foldable substrate that might cover the surface of a moving machine. It will make possible the use of machines in unsupervised environments by making them ‘cautious’ and find impressive applications in service industry, health industry, bioengineering, space exploration, and many more.
7 min read
June 5, 2021

Pattern Analysis for Machine Olfaction: A Review

Ricardo Gutierrez-Osuna
Published in: IEEE Sensors Journal (Volume: 2, Issue: 3, June 2002)
Pattern Analysis constitutes a critical building block in the development of gas sensor array instruments, which are potential substitutes to the human olfactory system. The process of analysis can be split into signal pre-processing, dimensionality reduction, prediction and validation. The design for successful pattern recognition for human olfactory system requires careful consideration and critical evaluation of various methods.
4 min read
June 2, 2021

Articles Posted in the Month (May 2021)

Light-Based Indoor Positioning System A Review

MalithMaheepala, Abbas Z. Kouzani, Matthew A. Joordens
Published in: IEEE Sensors Journal (Volume: 20, Issue: 8, April 2020)
It’s impossible to imagine the modern lifestyle without positioning systems and navigation technologies. The widely used Global positioning system (GPS) and navigation technologiesare ineffective in indoor environments. The emergence of indoor positioning technologies came as a boon for the indoor. Indoor positioning using light signals have immensepotential to provide a reliable and more accurate solution to the indoor positioning systems.
5 min read
May 29, 2021

Utilizing Blockchain to Overcome Cyber Security Concerns in the Internet of Things

Bandar Alotaibi
Published in: IEEE Sensors Journal (Volume: 19, Issue: 23, December 2019)
The Internet of Things (IoT), a wide network of internet connected objects to exchange data, has found impressive solutions in the last two decades which improved people’s lives. To maximise the benefit of IoT applications, blockchain technology has been explored and utilized to enhance the security limitations of the IoT technology.
2 min read
May 22, 2021

Articles Posted in the Month (Apr 2021)

Consumer Grade EEG measuring sensors as research tools: A Review

Phattarapong Sawangjai, Supanida Hompoonsup, Pitshaporn Leelaarporn, Supavit Kongwudhikunakorn, and Theerawit Wilaiprasitporn.
Published in: IEEE Sensors Journal (Volume: 20, Issue: 8, April 2020)
The emerging application of consumer grade EEG measuring sensors and advancement in technology, which had made it portable and affordable, has made it accessible in the general market. EEG devices now have a broader use other than medicine. The researchers, educationists, game developers, engineers, and psychiatrists are enthusiastic about the consumer grade EEG device, which has made the study of the brain accessible and its application quite convenient.
2 min read
April 12, 2021

Articles Posted in the Month (Mar 2021)

Visual Sensors Hardware Platforms: A Review

Daniel G. Costa.
Published in: IEEE Sensors Journal (Volume: 20, Issue: 8, April 2020)
The embedded sensors in camera-enabled devices like the drones and smartphones have opened immense opportunities of bringing imaging capabilities to sensor networks. The networks of connected cameras using 5G, Zigbee, WiFi, Bluetooth protocols result in an advanced technology of visual sensors platforms. Very soon we expect on-board Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning enabled System-on-Chip wireless visual sensor network (WVSN) platforms for IoT applications.
3 min read
March 17, 2021

Articles Posted in the Month (Feb 2021)

Sensory Systems in Micro-Processor Controlled Prosthetic Leg: A Review

Nur Azah Hamzaid, Nur Hidayah Mohd Yusof, Farahiyah Jasni.
Published in: IEEE Sensors Journal (Volume: 20, Issue: 9, May 2020)
In recent years, Micro-processor controlled prosthetic legs (MPCPL) are being preferred over conventional prosthetics because they use actuators to replace missing joint function and hence are more functional. Due to this the user’s walking gait and metabolic energy consumption can be imitated very well. The state-of-the-art MPCPL takes commands from the brain through muscles motion, converts that into the user’s gait intention and performs the locomotive motion based on the kinetics sensory system’s input. Very soon the comfort of the motion control will be complimented by taking inputs of eyes and ears to ensure gait further safer.
3 min read
February 13, 2021

Articles Posted in the Month (Jan 2021)

Developing Next-Generation Brain Sensing Technologies—A Review

Jacob T. Robinson, Eric Pohlmeyer, Malte C. Gather, Caleb Kemere, John E. Kitching, George G. Malliaras, Adam Marblestone, Kenneth L. Shepard.
Published in: IEEE Sensors Journal (Volume: 19, Issue: 22, November 2020)
Brain-sensing technologies have immense opportunities and challenges for researchers to explore and identify the best strategies to translate them into products and therapies to improve patients’ lives with neurological and other disorders. It raises the possibility of creating neural interfaces that can more effectively restore or repair neural function and reveal fundamental properties of neural information processing. The transition of these technologies into commercial products and therapies has enormous scope in the future.
3 min read
January 6, 2021

Articles Posted in the Month (Dec 2020)

Sensors and Systems for Wearable Environmental Monitoring Toward IoT-Enabled Applications: A Review

Md Abdulla Al Mamun and Mehmet Rasit Yuce.
Published in: IEEE Sensors Journal (Volume: 19, Issue: 18, September 2019)
Environmental pollution has a significant impact on the health of the people and the atmosphere around them. The advancement in microelectronics, communication technologies, and miniature environmental sensing devices has boosted the wearable environmental monitoring systems (WEMS) to monitor environmental pollution. Since there is a strong interrelation between environmental pollution with the economic consequences and escalations in healthcare costs, wearable environmental devices are boon for society.
3 min read
December 21, 2020

Articles Posted in the Month (Nov 2020)

Fire Sensing Technologies: A Review

Authors: Anshul Gaur, Abhishek Singh, Ashok Kumar, Kishor S. Kulkarni, Sayantani Lala, Kamal Kapoor, Vishal Srivastava, Anuj Kumar, and Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay
Published in: IEEE Sensors Journal (Volume: 19, Issue: 9, May 2019)
The progress on fire sensing technologies has been quite substantial due to advancements in sensing, information, and communications technologies. The sensing system’s hardware and algorithm ensure its excellent ability to detect early fire with less false positives. The information and communication technology focuses on issuing an early warning to notify the occupants and the fire department. Developing a robust fire system demands establishing the benchmark parameters for heat, flame, smoke, and gas levels detection in every fire scenario.
2 min read
November 9, 2020

Articles Posted in the Month (Oct 2020)

Sensing as a Service: Challenges, Solutions and Future Directions

Xiang Sheng, Jian Tang, Xuejie Xiao and Guoliang Xue.
Published in: IEEE Sensors Journal (Volume: 13, Issue: 10, October 2013)
Mobile phones do have various sensors which are used for exciting sensing applications by creating a cloud computing platform. This could be used as crowd-sourced platform to create innumerable novel sensing applications which are energy-efficient too.
2 min read
October 5, 2020

Featured Articles

Wearable Flexible Sensors: Wearable devices made of flexible materials are the future. These are used to monitor the physiological parameters of a person to minimize any malfunctioning happening in the body. read more
Sensing as a Service: Challenges, Solutions and Future Directions: Mobile phones do have various sensors which are used for exciting sensing applications by creating a cloud computing platform. This could be used as crowd-sourced platform to create innumerable novel sensing applications which are energy-efficient too. read more
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